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Chaptalization

An addition of sugar to the must during fermentation allows, if necessary for the taste balance, a slight increase in the alcohol content. Chaptalization (or enrichment) is a limited, regulated tolerance, subject to taxation.
It was invented by Jean-Antoine Chaptal, Minister of the Interior under Napoleon 1st.
Current viticultural techniques (large leaf areas, low yields) and global warming reduce the need to resort to chaptalization.